Biostatistics   |   Faculty & Staff   |   Research   |   Graduate Study   |   Contact
  For Collaborators:   Guidelines   |   Data Documentation   |   Sample CodeBook


    Heejung Bang 
    Laurel Beckett 
    Danielle Harvey 
    Ana-Maria Iosif 
    Kyoungmi Kim 
    Chin-Shang Li 
    Diana L Miglioretti 
    Miriam Nuno 
    LiHong Qi 
    David Rocke 
    Susan L. Stewart 


   Minh Chau (Chau) Barr
   Evan de Bie
   Blythe Durbin-Johnson
   Judy Li
   Lisa (Yi) Mu
   Vien Nguyen
   Naomi Saito
   Daniel Tancredi
   Sandra Taylor
   Machelle D Wilson
   Matt Yang


Chin-Shang Li

  Professor, PhD
  Dr. Li's personal webpage
Lack-of-fit tests, cure models (including survival analysis), semiparametric and nonparametric regression, generalized linear models, longitudinal data analysis, statistical methodology for genetic data, large sample theory.

1997: PhD, Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station 
1986: MS, Applied Mathematics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan 

Courses Taught
EPI-204B:  Statistical Models, Methods and Data Analysis
EPI-204:  Quantitative Epidemiology III: Statistical Models
EPI-202:  Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Epidemiology
EPP-246:  Biostatistics for Clinical Research Rotation, Internal Medicine Residency

Professional Affiliations/Awards
2005: Caffey Award/John Kirkpatrick Young Investigator Award, Best Basic Science Paper, The Society for Pediatric Radiology
Member, American Statistical Association
Member, Institute of Mathematical Statistics

Selected Publications
  1. Mayadev, J., Viswanathan, A., Liu, Y., Li, C.S., Alburquerque, K., Damato, A., Beriwal, S., and Erickson, B. (2017). American Brachytherapy Task Group Report: A pooled analysis of clinical outcomes for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Brachytherapy, 16:22-43.

  2. Kamangar, F., Petukhova, T.A., Monico, G., Mathis, S., Joo, J., Zhuang, A., Li, C.S., Liu, Y., Lee, E., and Eisen, D. (2017). Anxiety level of patients undergoing common dermatologic procedures versus those seeking general dermatologic care. Dermatology online Journal, 23(5):19.

  3. Jones JH, Singh N, Nidecker A, Li CS, Fishman S. (2017). Assessing the agreement between radiologic and clinical measurements of lumbar and cervical epidural depths in patients undergoing prone interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 124(5):1678-1685.

  4. David, E.A., Daly, M.E., Li, C.S., Chiu, C.L., Cooke, D.T., Brown, L.M., Melnikow, J., Kelly, K., and Canter, R.J. (2017). Increasing rates of no treatment in advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients: A propensity-matched analysis. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 12:437-445.

  5. 5. Byambaa, E., Erdembileg, A., Zhang, W., Li, C.S., Kaplan, R., Lazar, J., Merenstein, D., Karim, R., Aouizerat, B., Cohen, M., Butler, K., Pahwa, S., Ofotokun, I., Adimora, A.A., Golub, E., and Berglund, L. . (2017). Lp(a) and HIV: Allele-specific apolipoprotein(a) levels predict carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 37(5):997-1004.

  6. Gingrich, A.A., Elias, A., Lee, C.Y.M., Nakache, Y.P.N., Li, C.S., Shah, D.R., Boutin, R.D., and Canter, R.J. (2017). Predictors of residual disease after unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas. Journal of Surgical Research, 208:26-32.

  7. Loja, M.N., Sammann, A., DuBose, J., Li, C.S., Liu, Y., Savage, S., Scalea, T., Holcomb, J.B., Rasmussen, T.E., Knudson, M.M., and the AAST PROOVIT Study Group. (2017). The mangled extremity score and amputation: time for a revision. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 82(3):518-523.

  8. Patel, N.B., Coombs, D.M., Arsalai, M., Li, C.S., Liu, Y., Stevenson, T.R., and Pu, L.L.Q. (2017). The plastic surgeon as employee: a pilot survey of the California society of plastic surgeons. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 78(5):S238-S242.

  9. Kamangar, F., Davari, P., Azari, R., Fitzmaurice, S., Li, C.S., Eisen, D.B., and Fazel, N . (2017). The Residency interview is still paramount: results of a retrospective cohort study on concordance of dermatology residency applicant evaluators and influence of the applicant interview. Dermatology Online Journal, 23(5):22.

  10. Jha, P., Melendres, G., Bijan, B., Ormsby, E., Chu, L.L., Li, C.S., and McGahan, P.J. (2017). Trauma in pregnant women: assessing detection of post-traumatic placental abruption on contrast-enhanced CT versus Ultrasound. Abdominal Radiology, 42:1062-1067.

  11. Kamangar, F., Davari, P., Parsi, K.K., Li, C.S., Wang, Q., Mathis, S.A., and Fazel, N. (2016). 360-degree evaluations on physician performance as an effective tool for interprofessional teams: A critical analysis of physician self-assessment as compared to nursing staff and patient evaluations of providers . Dermatology Online Journal, 22(7):7.

  12. Tchanque-Fossuo, C.N., Ho, D., Dahle, S.E., Koo, E., Li, C.S., Isseroff, R.R., and Jagdeo, J. (2016). A systematic review of low-level light therapy for treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 24(2):418-426.

  13. Li, C.S. (2016). A test for the linearity of the nonparametric part of a semiparametric logistic regression model. Journal of Applied Statistics, 43:461-475.

  14. Humphries, M.D., Brunson, A., Li, C.S., Melnikow, J., and Romano, P. (2016). Amputation trends for patients with lower extremity ulcers due to diabetes and peripheral artery disease using statewide data. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 64(6):1747-1755.e3.

  15. Hsieh, S.H., Lee, S.M., Li, C.S., and Tu, S.H. (2016). An alternative to unrelated randomized response techniques with logistic regression analysis. Statistical Methods and Applications, 25(4):601-621.

  16. Song, P., Patel, N.B., Gunther, S., Li, C.S., Liu, Y., Lee, C.Y.G., Kludt, N.A., Patel, K.B., Ali, M.R., and Wong, M.S. (2016). Body image and quality of life: changes with gastric bypass and body contouring. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 76(Supplement 3):S216-221.

  17. Chu, L.L., Katzberg, R.W., Solomon, R., Southard, J., Evans, S.J., Li, C.S., McDonald, J.S., Payne, C., Boone, J.M., and RamachandraRao, S.P. (2016). Clinical significance of persistent global and focal computed tomography nephrograms after cardiac catheterization and their relationships to urinary biomarkers of kidney damage and procedural factors: pilot study. Investigative Radiology, 51(12):797-803.

  18. Aminololama-Shakeri, S., Abbey, C.K., Gazi, P., Prionas, N.D., Nosratieh, A., Li, C.S., Boone, J.M., and Lindfors, K.K. (2016). Differentiation of ductal carcinoma in-situ from benign micro-calcifications by dedicated breast computed tomography. European Journal of Radiology, 85:297-303.

  19. Ornelas, J., Rosamilia, L., Larsen, L., Foolad, N., Wang, Q., Li, C.S., and Sivamani, R.K. (2016). Objective assessment of isotretinoin-associated cheilitis: isotretinoin cheilitis grading scale. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 27(2):153-155.

  20. Petukhova, T.A., Foolad, N., Prakash, N., Shi, V.Y., Sharon, V.R., O’Brecht, L., Ali, I.A., Feldstein, S., Halls, J., Wang, Q., Li, C.S., and Sivamani, R.K. (2016). Objective volumetric grading of postacne scarring. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 75(1):229-231.

  21. Yuen, N.K., Li, C.S., Monjazeb, A.M., Borys, D., Bold, R.J., and Canter, R.J. (2016). Older age modifies oncologic outcome following radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma: a subtype-specific SEER analysis. Anticancer Research, 36(4):1745-1750.

  22. Kuo, J., Zhao, W., Li, C.S., and Seyal, M. (2016). Postictal immobility and generalized EEG suppression are associated with the severity of respiratory dysfunction. Epilepsia, 57(3):412-417.

  23. Lukusa, T.M., Lee, S.M., and Li, C.S. (2016). Semiparametric estimation of a zero-inflated Poisson regression model with missing covariates. Metrika, 79:457-483.

  24. Lu, M. and Li, C.S. (2016). Spline-based semiparametric estimation of a zero-inflated Poisson regression single-index model. Ann Inst Stat Math, 68(5):1111-1134.

  25. Boudreault, D.J., Li, C.S., and Wong, M.S. (2016). The effect of Web-based education on patient satisfaction, consultation time and conversion to surgery. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 76:108-110.

  26. Foolad, N., Prakash, N., Shi, V.Y., Kamangar, F., Wang, Q., Li, C.S., and Sivamani, R.K. (2016). The use of facial modeling and analysis to objectively quantify facial redness. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 15:43-48.

  27. Tice, J.A., Miglioretti, D.L., Li, C.S., Vachon, C.M., Gard, C.C., and Kerlikowske, K. (2015). Breast density and benign breast disease: Risk assessment to identify women at high risk of breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33:3137-3143.

  28. Xiao, H., Stoecklin-Marois, M., Li, C.S., McCurdy, S.A., and Schenker, M. (2015). Cohort study of physical activity and injury among Latino farm workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58:737-745.

  29. Hedayati, N., Brunson, A., Li, C.S., Baker, A.C., Pevec, W.C., White, R.H., and Romano, P.S. (2015). Do women have worse amputation-free survival than men following endovascular procedures for peripheral arterial disease? An evaluation of the California state-wide database. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 49:166-174.

  30. Yuen, N.K., Li, C.S., Monjazeb, A.M., Borys, D., Bold, R.J., and Canter, R.J. (2015). Older age impacts radiotherapy-related outcomes in soft tissue sarcoma. Journal of Surgical Research, 199:494-504.

  31. Naing, K.W., Monjaze, A.M., Li, C.S., Lee, L.Y., Yang, A., Borys, D., and Canter, R.J. (2015). Perioperative radiotherapy is associated with improved survival among patients with synovial sarcoma: a SEER analysis. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 111:158-164.

  32. Kennedy, J.D., Hardin, K.A., Parikh, P., Li, C.S., and Seyal, M . (2015). Pulmonary edema following generalized tonic clonic seizures is directly associated with seizure duration. Seizure, 27:19-24.

  33. Loja, M.N, Brunson, A., Li, C.S., Carson, J.G., White, R.H., Romano, P.S., and Hedayati, N. (2015). Racial disparities in outcomes of endovascular procedures for peripheral arterial disease: An evaluation of California hospitals, 2005-2009. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 29:950-959.

  34. Brown, J., Li, C.S., Giordani, M., Shahlaie, K., Klineberg, E.O., Tripet-Diel, J.R., Ihara, M.S., and Cohen, S.H. (2015). Swabbing surgical sites does not improve the detection of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in high-risk surgical patients. Surgical Infections, 16:523-525.

  35. Li, C.S. (2015). Testing the linearity of negative binomial regression models. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 85(5):1013-1025.

  36. Wilken, R., Li, C.S., Sharon, V.R., Kim, K., Patel, F.B., Patel, F., and Maverakis, E. . (2015). Topical clobetasol for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16:374.

  37. Canter, R.J., Ames, E., Mac, S., Grossenbacher, S.K., Chen, M., Li, C.S., Borys, D., Smith, R.C., Tellez, J., Sayers, T.J., Monjazeb, A.M., and Murphy, W.J. (2014). Anti-proliferative but not anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors enrich for cancer stem cells in soft tissue sarcoma. 14:756.

  38. Wu, Y., Lin, Y., Li, C.S., Lu, S.E., and Shih, W.J. (2014). Asymptotic efficiency of an exponential cure model when cure information is partially known. International Journal of Statistics and Probability, 3:1-17.

  39. Lamba, R., McGahan, J.P., Corwin, M.T., Li, C.S., Tran, T., Seibert, J.A., and Boone, J.M. (2014). CT Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT scans: variability between two different manufacturers' MDCT scanners. American Journal of Roentgenology, 203:1013-1020.

  40. Xiao, H., Stoecklin-Marois, M., Li, C.S., McCurdy, S.A., and Schenker, M. (2014). Depression, perceived stress and nervios associated with injury in the MICASA Study, a California farm worker population. Field Actions Science Reports (FACTS), 10

  41. Mumma, B.E., McCue, J.Y., Li, C.S., and Holmes, J.F. (2014). Effects of emergency department expansion on emergency department patient flow. Academic Emergency Medicine, 21:504-509.

  42. Amugongo, S.K., Yao, W., Jia, J., Lay, Y.A.E., Dai, W., Jiang, L., Walsh, D., Li, C.S., Dave, N.K.N., Olivera, D., Panganiban, B., Ritchie, R.O., and Lane, N.E. (2014). Effects of sequential osteoporosis treatments on trabecular bone in adult rats with low bone mass. Osteoporosis International, 25:1735-1750.

  43. Wu, Y., Lin, Y., Lu, S.E., Li, C.S., and Shih, W.J. (2014). Extension of a Cox proportional hazards cure model when cure information is partially known. Biostatistics, 15:540-554.

  44. Brown, E.G., Burgess, D., Li, C.S., Canter, R.J., and Bold, R.J. (2014). Hospital readmissions: necessary evil or preventable target for quality improvement. Annals of Surgery, 260:583-591.

  45. Han, H., Kass, P.H., Wilsey, B.L., and Li, C.S. (2014). Increasing trends in Schedule II opioid use and doctor shopping during 1999-2007 in California. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 23:26-35.

  46. Hylton, J.R., Smith, C.A., Li, C.S., and Pevec, W.C. (2014). Octogenarians develop infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease in the absence of traditional risk factors. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 28:1712-1718.

  47. Khong, K., Nguyen, H., Li, C.S., Cheng, D., and McGahan, J.P. (2014). Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma against the diaphragm: Is artificial ascites necessary? Open Journal of Radiology, 4:32-43.

  48. Canter, R.J., Borys, D., Olusanya, A., Li, C.S., Lee, L.Y., Boutin, R.D., Christensen, S.D., Tamurian, R.M., and Monjazeb, A.M. (2014). Phase I trial of neoadjuvant conformal radiotherapy plus sorafenib for patients with locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 21:1616-1623.

  49. Tache, V., Baer, R.J., Currier, R.J., Li, C.S., Towner, D., Waetjen, L.E., and Jeliefe-Pawlowski, L.L. (2014). Population-based biomarker screening and the development of severe preeclampsia in California. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 211:377.e1-377.e8.

  50. Sturm, R.M., Breyer, B.N., Li, C.S., Subak, L.L., Brown, J.S., and Shindel, A.W. (2014). Prevalence of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in women who have sex with women: An internet-based survey. Journal of Women's Health, 23:935-940.

  51. Brass, S.D., Li, C.S., and Auerbach, S. (2014). The underdiagnosis of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 10:1025-1031.

  52. Li, C.S. (2013). A partially linear model with its applications. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 42:1673-1680.

  53. Han, H., Kass, P.H., Wilsey, B.L., Li, C.S. (2013). Age, gender, and earlier opioid requirement associations with the rate of dose escalation in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Opioid Management, 9(2):129-38.

  54. Xiao, H, McCurdy, S.A., Stoecklin-Marois, M.T., Li, C.S., Schenker, M.B. (2013). Agricultural work and chronic musculoskeletal pain among Latino farm workers: the MICASA study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56(2):216-25.

  55. Moreland, C.J., Kravitz,R.L., Paterniti, D.A., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., White, R.H. (2013). Anticoagulation education: do patients understand potential medication-related emergencies? Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 39(1):22-31.

  56. Lev-Tov, H., Li, C.S., Dahle, S., Isseroff, R.R. (2013). Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial. Trials, 14:1-8.

  57. Rossaro, L., Torruellas, C., Dhaliwal, S., Botros, J., Clark, G., Li, C.S., and Minoletti, M.M. (2013). Clinical outcomes of hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin via telemedicine consultation in northern California. Digestive diseases and sciences, 58(12):3620-5.

  58. Seyal, M., Bateman, L.M., Li, C.S. (2013). Impact of periictal interventions on respiratory dysfunction, postictal EEG suppression, and postictal immobility. Epilepsia, 54(2):377-82.

  59. Hsieh, S.H., Li, C.S., and Lee, S.M. (2013). Logistic regression with outcome and covariates missing separately or simultaneously. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 66:32-54.

  60. Shah, D.R., Brown, E., Russo, J.E., Li, C.S., Martinez, S.R., Coates, J.M., Bold, R.J., Canter, R.J. (2013). Negligible effect of perioperative epidural analgesia among patients undergoing elective gastric and pancreatic resections. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 17(4):660-7.

  61. Liu, R., Mao, Z., Matthews, D.L., Li, C.S., Chan, J.W., Satake, N. (2013). Novel single-cell functional analysis of red blood cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy: application for sickle cell disease. Experimental Hematology, 41(7):656-661.e1..

  62. Chang, E., Fung, L.C., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Tam, L., Tang, C., Tong, E.K. (2013). Offering acupuncture as an adjunct for tobacco cessation: a community clinic experience. Health Promotion Practice, 14(5 Suppl):80S-7S.

  63. Jha, P., Stein-Wexler, R., Coulter, K., Seibert, A., Li, C.S., Wootton-Gorges, S.L. (2013). Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiograph. Pediatric Radiology, 43(6):668-72.

  64. Jia, J., Yao, W., Amugongo, S., Shahnazari, M., Dai, W., Lay, Y.A., Olvera, D., Zimmermann, E.A., Ritchie, R.O., Li, C.S., Alliston, T., Lane, N.E. (2013). Prolonged alendronate treatment prevents the decline in serum TGF-β1 levels and reduces cortical bone strength in long-term estrogen deficiency rat model. Bone, 52(1):424-32.

  65. Monsky, W.L., Molloy, C., Jin, B., Nolan, T., Fernando, D., Loh, S., Li, C.S. (2013). Quality-of-life assessment after palliative interventions to manage malignant ureteral obstruction. CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, 36(5):1355-63.

  66. Bakerjian, D., Speegle-Clark, K., Poltaviskiy, E., and Li, C.S. (2013). Research brief: National provider identifier database: can it be a useful workforce tool? Geriatric Nursing, 34(2):162-165.

  67. Ocon, S., Murphy, C., Dang, A.T., Sankaran-Walters, S., Li, C.S., Tarara, R., Borujerdpur, N., Dandekar, S., Paster, B.J., and George, M.D. (2013). Transcription profiling reveals potential mechanisms of dysbiosis in the oral microbiome of rhesus macaques with chronic untreated SIV infection. PLOS ONE, 8(11):e80863.

  68. Dezfuli, B., Li, C.S., Young, J.N., Wong, M.S . (2013). Treatment of sternal wound infection with vacuum-assisted closure. Wounds, 25(2):41-50.

  69. Rowen, T.S., Breyer, B.N., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S., Robertson, P.A., Shindel, A.W. (2013). Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 120(1):42-5.

  70. Shindel, A.W., Rowen, T.S., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S., Robertson, P.A., Breyer, B.N. (2012). An Internet survey of demographic and health factors associated with risk of sexual dysfunction in women who have sex with women. 9(5):1261-71.

  71. Baker, A.C., Chew, V., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Dawson, D.L., Pevec, W.C., Hedayati, N. (2012). Application of duplex ultrasound imaging in determining in-stent stenosis during surveillance after mesenteric artery revascularization. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 56(5):1364-71.

  72. Parsi, K.K., Brezinski, E.A., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S., Armstrong, A.W. (2012). Are patients with psoriasis being screened for cardiovascular risk factors? A study of screening practices and awareness among primary care physicians and cardiologists. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 67(3):357-62.

  73. Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Yang, X. (2012). Bayesian analysis of semiparametric zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Journal of Taiwan Intelligent Technologies and Applied Statistics, 10:1-16.

  74. Shah, D., Borys, D., Martinez, S.R., Li, C.S., Tamurian, R.M., Bold, R.J., Monjazeb, A., and Canter, R.J. (2012). Complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy is predictive of oncologic outcome in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Anticancer Research, 32:3911-3916.

  75. Dang, A.T., Cotton, S., Sankaran-Walters, S., Li, C.S., Lee, C.Y., Dandekar, S., Paster, B.J., George, M.D. (2012). Evidence of an increased pathogenic footprint in the lingual microbiome of untreated HIV infected patients. BMC Microbiology, 12:153.

  76. Li, C.S. (2012). Identifiability of zero-inflated Poisson models. Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics, 26(3):306-312.

  77. Han, H., Kass, P.H., Wilsey, B.L., Li, C.S. (2012). Individual and county-level factors associated with use of multiple prescribers and multiple pharmacies to obtain opioid prescriptions in California. PloS One, 7(9):e46246.

  78. Li, C.S. (2012). Lack-of-fit Tests for Generalized Linear Models via Splines. Communications in Statistics – Theory and Methods, 41(23):4240-4250.

  79. Hu, S.R., Li, C.S., Lee, C.K. (2012). Model crash frequency at highway-railroad grade crossings using negative binomial regression. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 35(7):841-852.

  80. Katzberg, R.W., Monsky, W.L., Prionas, N.D., Sidhar, V., Southard, J., Carlson, J., Boone, J.M., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S. (2012). Persistent CT nephrograms following cardiac catheterisation and intervention: initial observations. Insights Imaging, 3(1):49-60.

  81. Chock, B., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S., Swislocki, A. (2012). Plasma testosterone is associated with Framingham risk score. Aging Male, 15(3):134-9.

  82. Kuo, J.H., Wong, M.S., Perez, R.V., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Troppmann, C. (2012). Renal transplant wound complications in the modern era of obesity. Journal of Surgical Research, 173(2):216-23.

  83. Li, C.S. (2012). Score tests for semiparametric zero-inflated Poisson models. International Journal of Statistics and Probability, 1(2):1-7.

  84. Monsky, W.L., Jin, B., Molloy, C., Canter, R.J., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Borys, D., Mack, W., Kim, I., Buonocore, M.H., Chaudhari, A.J. (2012). Semi-automated volumetric quantification of tumor necrosis in soft tissue sarcoma using contrast-enhanced MRI. Anticancer Research, 32(11):4951-61.

  85. Lee, S.M., Hsieh, S.H., Li, C.S., Huang, L.H. (2012). Semiparametric estimation of logistic regression model with missing covariates and outcome. Metrika, 75(5):621-653.

  86. Li, C.S. (2012). Testing for no effect via splines. Computational Statistics, 27(2):343-357.

  87. Maverakis, E., Li, C.S., Alikhan, A., Lin, T.C., Idriss, N., Armstrong, A.W. (2012). The effect of academic "misrepresentation" on residency match outcomes. Dermatology Online Journal, 18(1):1.

  88. Li, C.S. (2011). A lack-of-fit test for parametric zero-inflated Poisson models. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 81(9):1081-1098.

  89. Wilsey, B.L., Fishman, S.M., Gilson, A.M., Casamalhuapa, C., Baxi, H., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S. (2011). An analysis of the number of multiple prescribers for opioids utilizing data from the California Prescription Monitoring Program. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 20(12):1262-8.

  90. Hu, S.R., Li, C.S., and Lee, C.K. (2011). Assessing casualty risk of railroad-grade crossing crashes using zero-inflated Poisson models. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 137(8):527-536.

  91. Caldwell, J.G., Shaver, P.R., Li, C.S., and Minzenberg, M. J. (2011). Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment, and depression as predictors of parental self-efficacy in at-risk mothers. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 20(6):595-616.

  92. Zou, P., Helton, K.J., Smeltzer, M., Li, C.S., Conklin, H.M., Gajjar, A., Wang, W.C., Ware, R.E., Ogg, R.J. (2011). Hemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in children with sickle cell anemia. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 5(4):295-306.

  93. Ellis, C.L., Ma, Z.M., Mann, S.K., Li, C.S., Wu, J., Knight, T.H., Yotter, T., Hayes, T.L., Maniar, A.H., Troia-Cancio, P.V., Overman, H.A., Torok, N.J., Albanese, A., Rutledge, J.C., Miller, C.J., Pollard, R.B., Asmuth, D.M. (2011). Molecular characterization of stool microbiota in HIV-infected subjects by panbacterial and order-level 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) quantification and correlations with immune activation. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 57(5):363-70.

  94. Chan, A.L., Juarez, M.M., Shelton, D.K., MacDonald, T., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Albertson, T.E. (2011). Novel computed tomographic chest metrics to detect pulmonary hypertension. BMC Medical Imaging, 11:7.

  95. Stein-Wexler, R., Bateni, C., Wootton-Gorges, S.L., Li, C.S. (2011). Pediatric radiology fellows' experience with intussusception reduction. Pediatric Radiology, 41(11):1365-8.

  96. McGahan, J.P., Loh, S., Fitzgerald, E., Koppie, T., Evans, C.P., Dall'Era, M., Li, C.S. (2011). Pretreatment imaging can be used to select imaging guidance, ultrasound alone versus CT plus ultrasound, for percutaneous renal radiofrequency ablation. American Journal of Roentgenology, 197(5):1244-50.

  97. Quang, Y.N., Vu, J., Yuk, J., Li, C.S., Chen, M., Bowlus, C.L. (2011). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in US-born and foreign-born Asian/Pacific Islander college students. Journal of American College Health, 59(1):37-41.

  98. Bateni, C., Stein-Wexler, R., Wootton-Gorges, S.L., Li, C.S. (2011). Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction. Pediatric Radiology, 41(6):721-6.

  99. Seyal, M., Pascual, F., Lee, C.Y., Li, C.S., Bateman, L.M. (2011). Seizure-related cardiac repolarization abnormalities are associated with ictal hypoxemia. Epilepsia, 52(11):2105-11.

  100. Li, C.S. (2011). Testing the lack-of-fit of zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, 40(4):497-510.

  101. Lo, E.Y., Li, C.S., Van den Bogaerde, J.M. (2011). The effect of drill trajectory on proximity to the posterior interosseous nerve during cortical button distal biceps repair. Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 27(8):1048-54.

  102. Toy, E., Balasubramanian, S., Selmi, C., Li, C.S., Bowlus, C.L. (2011). The prevalence, incidence and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an ethnically diverse population. BMC Gastroenterology, 11:83.

  103. Monsky, W.L., Garza, A.S., Kim, I., Loh, S., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S., Fisher, J., Sandhu, P., Sidhar, V., Chaudhari, A.J., Lin, F., Deutsch, L.S., Badawi, R.D. (2011). Treatment planning and volumetric response assessment for Yttrium-90 radioembolization: semiautomated determination of liver volume and volume of tumor necrosis in patients with hepatic malignancy. CardioVascular & Interventional Radiology, 34(2):306-18.

  104. Cheung, A.T., Miller, J.W., Craig, S.M., To, P.L., Lin, X., Samarron, S.L., Chen, P.C., Zwerdling, T., Wun, T., Li, C.S., Green, R. (2010). Comparison of real-time microvascular abnormalities in pediatric and adult sickle cell anemia patients. American Journal of Hematology, 85(11):899-901.

  105. McCarville, M.B., Hillenbrand, C.M., Loeffler, R.B., Smeltzer, M.P., Song, R., Li, C.S., Hankins, J.S. (2010). Comparison of whole liver and small region-of-interest measurements of MRI liver R2* in children with iron overload. Pediatric Radiology, 40(8):1360-7.

  106. Loh, S., Bagheri, S., Katzberg, R.W., Fung, M.A., Li, C.S. (2010). Delayed adverse reaction to contrast-enhanced CT: a prospective single-center study comparison to control group without enhancement. Radiology, 255(3):764-71.

  107. Dias, R., Bateman, L.M., Farias, S.T., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Jorgensen, J., Seyal, M. (2010). Depression in epilepsy is associated with lack of seizure control. Epilepsy & Behavior, 19(3):445-7.

  108. Hu, S.R., Li, C.S., Lee, C.K. (2010). Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model. Safety Science, 48(2):186-194.

  109. McGahan, J.P., Loh, S., Boschini, F.J., Paoli, E.E., Brock, J.M., Monsky, W.L., Li, C.S. (2010). Maximizing parameters for tissue ablation by using an internally cooled electrode. Radiology, 256(2):397-405.

  110. Chapman, A.L., Morrissey, B.M., Vasu, V.T., Juarez, M.M., Houghton, J.S., Li, C.S., Cross, C.E., Eiserich, J.P. (2010). Myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidative metabolism of nitric oxide in the cystic fibrosis airway. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 9(2):84-92.

  111. Bowlus, C.L., Li, C.S., Karlsen, T.H., Lie, B.A., Selmi, C. (2010). Primary sclerosing cholangitis in genetically diverse populations listed for liver transplantation: unique clinical and human leukocyte antigen associations. Liver Transplantation, 16(11):1324-30.

  112. Wilsey, B.L., Fishman, S.M., Gilson, A.M., Casamalhuapa, C., Baxi, H., Zhang, H., Li, C.S. (2010). Profiling multiple provider prescribing of opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, and anorectics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(1-2):99-106.

  113. Canter, R.J., Martinez, S.R., Tamurian, R.M., Wilton, M., Li, C.S., Ryu, J., Mak, W., Monsky, W.L., Borys, D. (2010). Radiographic and histologic response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17(10):2578-84.

  114. Seyal, M., Bateman, L.M., Albertson, T.E., Lin, T.C., Li, C.S. (2010). Respiratory changes with seizures in localization-related epilepsy: analysis of periictal hypercapnia and airflow patterns. Epilepsia, 51(8):1359-64.

  115. Eastman, J., Tseng, S., Lo, E., Li, C.S., Yoo, B., Lee, M. (2010). Retropatellar technique for intramedullary nailing of proximal tibia fractures: a cadaveric assessment. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 24(11):672-6.

  116. Monsky, W.L., Kim, I., Loh, S., Li, C.S., Greasby, T.A., Deutsch, L.S., Badawi, R.D. (2010). Semiautomated segmentation for volumetric analysis of intratumoral ethiodol uptake and subsequent tumor necrosis after chemoembolization. American Journal of Roentgenology, 195(5):1220-30.

  117. Li, C.S. (2010). Semiparametric negative binomial regression models. Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, 39:475-486.

  118. Bateman, L.M., Li, C.S., Lin, T.C., Seyal, M. (2010). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are associated with reduced severity of ictal hypoxemia in medically refractory partial epilepsy. Epilepsia, 51(10):2211-4.

  119. Li, C.S. and Hunt, D.L. (2009). A linear B-spline threshold dose-response model with dose-specific response variation applied to developmental toxicity studies. JMASM, 8(2):571-582.

  120. Helton KJ, Paydar A, Glass J, Weirich EM, Hankins J, Li CS, Smeltzer MP, Wang WC, Ware RE, Ogg RJ. (2009). Arterial spin-labeled perfusion combined with segmentation techniques to evaluate cerebral blood flow in white and gray matter of children with sickle cell anemia. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 52(1):85-91.

  121. Monsky, W.L., Pahwa, A., Li, C.S., Katzberg, R.W. (2009). Clinical factors associated with dense and wedge-shaped nephrograms detected 24 h after chemoembolization. CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, 32(6):1193-1201.

  122. Cheung, A.T., Tomic, M.M., Chen, P.C., Miguelino, E., Li, C.S., Devaraj, S. (2009). Correlation of microvascular abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM): a real-time intravital microscopy study. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 42(4):285-95.

  123. Wilsey, B.L., Fishman, S., Li, C.S., Storment, J., Albanese, A. (2009). Markers of abuse liability of short- vs long-acting opioids in chronic pain patients: a randomized cross-over trial. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 94(1):98-107.

  124. McCarville, M.B., Monu, N., Smeltzer, M.P., Li, C.S., Laningham, F.H., Morris, E.B., Shulkin, B.L. (2009). PET-CT of the normal spinal cord in children. Academic Radiology, 16(7):881-5.

  125. Hankins, J.S., McCarville, M.B., Loeffler, R.B., Smeltzer, M.M., Onciu, M., Hoffer, F.A., Li, C.S., Wang, W.C., Ware, R.E., and Hillenbrand, C.M. (2009). R2* magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients with iron overload. Blood, 113:4453-4455.

  126. Karplus, G., McCarville, M.B., Smeltzer, M.P., Spyridis, G., Rao, B.N., Davidoff, A., Li, C.S., Shochat, S. (2009). Should contralateral exploratory thoracotomy be advocated for children with osteosarcoma and early unilateral pulmonary metastases? Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 44(4):665-71.

  127. Li, C.S. (2009). Using P-splines to test the linearity of partially linear models. Statistical Methodology, 6(5):542-552.

  128. Smith, M.M., Chen, P.C., Li, C.S., Ramanujam, S., Cheung, A.T. (2009). Whole blood viscosity and microvascular abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 41(4):229-39.

  129. Eubank, R. and Li, C.S. (2008). A diagnostic test for parallelism. International Journal of Statistical Sciences, 7:13-29.

  130. McCarville MB, Whittle SB, Goodin GS, Li CS, Smeltzer MP, Hale GA, Kaufman RA. (2008). Clinical and CT features of benign pneumatosis intestinalis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant and oncology patients. Pediatric Radiology, 38(10):1074-83.

  131. Martin MB, Li CS, Rowland CC, Howard SC, Kaste SC. (2008). Correlation of bone age, dental age, and chronological age in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 18(3):217-23.

  132. Helton KJ, Weeks JK, Phillips NS, Zou P, Kun LE, Khan RB, Gajjar A, Fouladi M, Broniscer A, Boop F, Li CS, Ogg RJ. (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging of brainstem tumors: axonal degeneration of motor and sensory tracts. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 1(4):270-6.

  133. McCarville MB, Goodin GS, Fortner G, Li CS, Smeltzer MP, Adams R, Wang W. (2008). Evaluation of a comprehensive transcranial doppler screening program for children with sickle cell anemia. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 50(4):818-21.

  134. Bateman LM, Li CS, Seyal M. (2008). Ictal hypoxemia in localization-related epilepsy: analysis of incidence, severity and risk factors. Brain, 131(Pt 12):3239-45.

  135. Burton AR, Vincent E, Arnold PY, Lennon GP, Smeltzer M, Li CS, Haskins K, Hutton J, Tisch RM, Sercarz EE, Santamaria P, Workman CJ, Vignali DA. (2008). On the pathogenicity of autoantigen-specific T-cell receptors. Diabetes, 57(5):1321-30.

  136. Hankins JS, Wynn LW, Brugnara C, Hillery CA, Li CS, Wang WC. (2008). Phase I study of magnesium pidolate in combination with hydroxycarbamide for children with sickle cell anaemia. British Journal of Haematology, 140(1):80-5.

  137. Hankins JS, Helton KJ, McCarville MB, Li CS, Wang WC, Ware RE. (2008). Preservation of spleen and brain function in children with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 50(2):293-7.

  138. Lim Y, Vasu VT, Valacchi G, Leonard S, Aung HH, Schock BC, Kenyon NJ, Li CS, Traber MG, Cross CE. (2008). Severe vitamin E deficiency modulates airway allergic inflammatory responses in the murine asthma model. Free Radical Research, 42(4):387-96.

  139. Hunt DL, Rai SN, Li CS. (2008). Summary of dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity studies. Dose-Response, 6(4):352-68.

  140. Hankins JS, Fortner GL, McCarville MB, Smeltzer MP, Wang WC, Li CS, Ware RE. (2008). The natural history of conditional transcranial Doppler flow velocities in children with sickle cell anaemia. British Journal of Hematology, 142(1):94-9.

  141. Morris EB, Shelso J, Smeltzer MP, Thomas NA, Karimova EJ, Li CS, Merchant T, Gajjar A, Kaste SC. (2008). The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients. Pediatric Radiology, 38(12):1285-92.

  142. Li CS, Tu W. (2007). A Spline-Based Lack-Of-Fit Test for Independent Variable Effect in Poisson Regression. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Method, 6(1):239-247.

  143. Anghelescu DL, Burgoyne LL, Liu T, Li CS, Pui CH, Hudson MM, Furman WL, Sandlund JT. (2007). Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings predict anesthetic complications in children presenting with malignant mediastinal masses. Pediatric Anesthesia, 17(11):1090-8.

  144. Lyle CE, Wilson MW, Li CS, Kaste SC. (2007). Comparison of orbital volumes in enucleated patients with unilateral retinoblastoma: hydroxyapatite implants versus silicone implants. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 23(5):393-6.

  145. Funk AJ, Mandrell TD, Lokey SJ, Kosanke SD, Li CS, Potters CF. (2007). Effects of leukotriene inhibition on pulmonary morphology in rat pup lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Comparative Medicine, 57(2):186-92.

  146. Hankins J, Hinds P, Day S, Carroll Y, Li CS, Garvie P, Wang W. (2007). Therapy preference and decision-making among patients with severe sickle cell anemia and their families. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 48(17):705-10.

  147. Hunt DL, Li CS. (2006). A regression spline model for developmental toxicity data. Toxicological Sciences, 92(1):329-34.

  148. McCarville MB, Streck CJ, Dickson PV, Li CS, Nathwani AC, Davidoff AM. (2006). Angiogenesis inhibitors in a murine neuroblastoma model: quantitative assessment of intratumoral blood flow with contrast-enhanced gray-scale US. Radiology, 240(1):73-81.

  149. Glass JO, Reddick WE, Li CS, Laningham FH, Helton KJ, Pui CH. (2006). Computer-aided detection of therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24(6):785-91.

  150. Helton KJ, Phillips NS, Khan RB, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Zou P, Li CS, Langston JW, Ogg RJ. (2006). Diffusion tensor imaging of tract involvement in children with pontine tumors. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 27(4):786-93.

  151. McCarville MB, Lederman HM, Santana VM, Daw NC, Shochat SJ, Li CS, Kaufman RA. (2006). Distinguishing benign from malignant pulmonary nodules with helical chest CT in children with malignant solid tumors. Radiology, 239(2):514-20.

  152. Metzger ML, Howard SC, Hudson MM, Gow KW, Li CS, Krasin MJ, Merchant T, Kun L, Shelso J, Pui CH, Shochat SJ, McCarville MB. (2006). Natural history of thyroid nodules in survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 46(3):314-9.

  153. Shan ZY, Liu JZ, Glass JO, Gajjar A, Li CS, Reddick WE. (2006). Quantitative morphologic evaluation of white matter in survivors of childhood medulloblastoma. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24(8):1015-22.

  154. Metzger ML, Hudson MM, Somes GW, Shorr RI, Li CS, Krasin MJ, Shelso J, Pui CH, Howard SC. (2006). White race as a risk factor for hypothyroidism after treatment for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24(10):1516-21.

  155. Reddick WE, Glass JO, Helton KJ, Langston JW, Li CS, Pui CH. (2005). A quantitative MR imaging assessment of leukoencephalopathy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia without irradiation. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 26(9):2371-7.

  156. Zou P, Mulhern RK, Butler RW, Li CS, Langston JW, Ogg RJ. (2005). BOLD responses to visual stimulation in survivors of childhood cancer. NeuroImage, 24(1):61-9.

  157. Hankins J, Jeng M, Harris S, Li CS, Liu T, Wang W. (2005). Chronic transfusion therapy for children with sickle cell disease and recurrent acute chest syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 27(3):158-61.

  158. Zou P, Hutchins SB, Dutkiewicz RM, Li CS, Ogg RJ. (2005). Effects of EPI readout bandwidth on measured activation map and BOLD response in fMRI experiments. NeuroImage, 27(1):15-25.

  159. Jeng MR, Naidu PE, Rieman MD, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Nottage KA, Thornton DT, Li CS, Wiang WC. (2005). Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and immunosuppression in the treatment of pediatric acquired severe aplastic anemia. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 45(2):170-5.

  160. Ahn H, Li CS, Wang W. (2005). Sickle cell hepatopathy: clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome in pediatric and adult patients. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 45(2):184-90.

  161. Li, C.S. (2005). Testing lack of fit for heteroscedastic nonlinear regression models via locally weighted least squares regression. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, 16(1):29-54.

  162. Eubank, R.L., Li, C.S., and Wang, S. (2005). Testing lack-of-fit of parametric regression models using nonparametric regression techniques. Statistica Sinica, 15(1):135-52.

  163. Li, C.S. (2005). Using local linear kernel smoothers to test the lack of fit of nonlinear regression models. Statistical Methodology, 2:267-284.

  164. Williams R, Olivi S, Li CS, Storm M, Cremer L, Mackert P, Wang W. (2004). Oral glutamine supplementation decreases resting energy expenditure in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 26(10):619-25.

  165. Li, C.S. and Hunt, D. (2004). Regression splines for threshold selection with application to a random-effects logistic dose-response model. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 46(1):1-9.

  166. Li, C.S. and Cheng, C. (2004). Stable classification with applications to microarray data. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 47(3):599-609.

  167. Rodriguez CA, Atkinson R, Bitar W, Whitney CG, Edwards KM, Mitchell L, Li J, Sublett J, Li CS, Liu T, Chesney PJ, Tuomanen EI. (2004). Tolerance to vancomycin in pneumococci: detection with a molecular marker and assessment of clinical impact. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 190(8):1481-7.

  168. Li, C.S. (2003). A lack-of-fit test for heteroscedastic regression models via cosine-series smoothers. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistic, 45(4):477-489.

  169. Li, C.S., Liang, H., Hsieh, Y.H., and Twu, S.J. (2003). Comparison of viral trajectories in AIDS studies by using nonparametric mixed-effects models. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Method, 2(2):443-450.

  170. Jeng MR, Adams-Graves P, Howard TA, Whorton MR, Li CS, Ware RE. (2003). Identification of hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms in chronically transfused patients with sickle cell disease. American Journal of Hematology, 74(4):243-8.

  171. Li, C.S. and Taylor, J.M.G. (2002). A semiparametric accelerated failure time cure model. Stat Med, 21:3235-3247.

  172. McSorley, E.O., Lu, J.C., and Li, C.S. (2002). Performance of Parameter-Estimates in Step-Stress Accelerated Life-Tests With Various Sample-Sizes. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 51(3):271-277.

  173. Li, C.S. and Taylor, J.M.G. (2002). Smoothing covariate effects in cure models. Communications in Statistics, 31(3):477-493.

  174. Li, C.S., Taylor, J.M.G., and Sy, J.P. (2001). Identifiability of cure models. Statistics & Probability Letters, 54(4):389-395.

  175. Li, C.S. (2001). Testing for linearity in generalized linear models using kernel smoothing. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 69(4):339-351.

  176. Chen, D., Li, C.S., Lu, J.C., and Park, J. (2000). Parameter Estimation for Bivariate Shock Models with Singular Distribution for Censored Data with Concomitant Order Statistics. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics, 42(3):323-336.

  177. Li, C.S., Lu, J.C., Park, J., Kim, K., Brinkley, P.A., and Peterson, J.P. (1999). Multivariate zero-inflated Poisson models and their applications. Technometrics, 41:29-38.

  178. Li, C.S. (1999). Testing lack of fit of regression models under heteroscedasticity. The Canadian Journal of Statistics, 27:485-496.

  179. Chen, D., Lu, J.C., Hughes-Oliver, J.M., and Li, C.S. (1998). Asymptotic properties of maximum likelihood estimates for a bivariate exponential distribution and mixed censored data . Metrika, 48(2):109-125.

  Department of Public Health Sciences   |   UC Davis Health System   |   UC Davis
This page was generated 23 June 2017, 4:55 PM.

Reproduction of material on this web site is hereby granted solely for personal use. No other use of this material is authorized without prior written approval of the UC Regents.

Copyright © 2017 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.